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Security Best Practices

Nicole Jones

Nicole Jones|June 6, 2024

Dive into the unique challenges of safeguarding GraphQL APIs and discover the latest best practices to defend against evolving cyber threats.


GraphQL Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) have become essential in the vast array of applications and software solutions we develop today. They form the backbone of data communication and exchange between applications, ranging from complex transactions in global financial systems to nuanced interactions within smartphone apps. The significance of GraphQL APIs goes beyond their functionality; they are critically important in protecting sensitive data and systems from cyber threats. With the increasing adoption and complexity of GraphQL APIs, the urgency to secure them effectively is more critical than ever.

This guide is dedicated to exploring the various aspects of GraphQL API security, providing you with the knowledge required to safeguard your APIs against a wide array of potential threats. We will delve into the intricate layers of GraphQL API security, from foundational principles to advanced protective strategies, ensuring the integrity and confidentiality of your users' digital interactions are maintained securely. Covering everything from the basics of securing traditional APIs to the unique challenges of GraphQL, this guide presents the most effective and up-to-date best practices for securing your GraphQL APIs. Let’s begin with a fundamental question: What exactly is API security?

What is API Security?

As applied to GraphQL, API security is the crucial barrier between your GraphQL APIs and the complex array of threats in today’s interconnected digital ecosystem. It encompasses various aspects, including multiple protocols, systems, and tools, each specifically designed to prevent and evade malicious attacks on or through GraphQL APIs, thereby safeguarding the essential components of modern software communication.

At its most basic, GraphQL API security ensures that only authorized users can execute authorized actions. This typically involves implementing robust authentication and authorization processes to verify user identities and manage access permissions. Encryption also plays a pivotal role in GraphQL API security as a critical mechanism to protect data during its transfer between servers and clients. However, protection for GraphQL APIs extends beyond access control; it includes monitoring and logging API activities to identify and neutralize potential threats, implementing rate limiting to curb abuse, and managing the lifecycle of the GraphQL API to reduce exploitable vulnerabilities.

It is also crucial to secure the GraphQL endpoint, as CSRF vulnerabilities can arise from certain request methods not being validated by the GraphQL endpoint.A significant security concern in GraphQL is the potential for a malicious query, which can exploit vulnerabilities such as CSRF attacks, circular queries, and cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. To mitigate these risks, consider implementing measures like limiting query depth, improving validation and sanitization, using timeouts, rate limiting APIs, query cost analysis, and safelisting operations.

Unlike other software development processes, GraphQL API security is not a one-time task but a continuous process. It needs to evolve in response to the changing threat landscape and adapt to the unique characteristics and integration patterns of GraphQL APIs. The ultimate aim is to foster a secure data exchange environment that maintains data integrity, availability, and confidentiality while minimizing potential attack surfaces.

Why is API Security Important?

The critical role of GraphQL APIs in modern software and applications brings with it significant risks. Given their exposure to the open internet, GraphQL APIs are inherently vulnerable to cyberattacks. The importance of GraphQL API security is rooted in the necessity to protect sensitive data transferred between services, maintain user privacy, and prevent disruptions in business operations by malicious actors.

The consequences of API security breaches have been starkly highlighted in recent years. Such incidents can result in data theft, service outages, and substantial financial losses. For example, an unprotected GraphQL API could be exploited by an attacker to access sensitive customer information, leading to identity theft and fraud. While data breaches are often associated with compromised databases, the potential for data leaks through APIs, especially those as dynamic as GraphQL, is equally significant.

API security is a critical component of users' trust in digital services. A breach in a GraphQL API can severely damage a company's reputation, eroding customer trust and loyalty. Moreover, due to the interconnected nature of services, a vulnerability in one GraphQL API can have cascading effects, impacting associated services and partners and amplifying the overall damage of the breach.

Therefore, securing GraphQL APIs is not merely a technical requirement but a crucial business imperative. Establishing a robust security framework for GraphQL APIs is essential to provide users with a secure and reliable service and comply with regulatory standards such as GDPR and HIPAA.

How Do You Secure a GraphQL Endpoint?

Securing GraphQL APIs, one of the more recent advancements in API technology, presents unique challenges due to its distinct query language and flexible features. Unlike REST APIs, which operate with defined endpoints and structured requests and responses, GraphQL allows clients to make precise queries for precisely what they need. This flexibility introduces several security considerations that differ from traditional API models.

Implementing robust Authorization and Authentication is vital, akin to securing REST API endpoints, but with added complexity in GraphQL. Authentication in GraphQL can use similar methods as in REST, involving various mechanisms and technologies to verify user identities. However, the intricacies of GraphQL necessitate more complex authorization strategies, often requiring granular control over read and write access to specific fields within the API. Utilizing API gateways and selecting appropriate GraphQL frameworks or platforms can assist in managing these authorization challenges.

Developers must rigorously validate and sanitize all inputs in GraphQL APIs to guard against malicious activities like injection attacks. Given the complexity and variability of GraphQL queries and mutations, input validation and sanitization require a more detailed and modular approach compared to REST APIs. Managing query complexity is also crucial to prevent resource exhaustion and potential denial-of-service attacks. Techniques such as batching attacks or deeply nested queries can exploit GraphQL resources. Implementing mechanisms to limit query depth and breadth, such as depth limiting or pagination, is crucial. Modern API gateways supporting GraphQL often provide features to enforce these limitations at a policy level.

In server-side GraphQL implementations, potential security risks and attacks can arise from default configurations and pagination controls. Examples include insecure default settings like enabling GraphiQL by default and specific attacks such as pagination limit bypass. Proper validation and sanitization are crucial to prevent these security threats. Mechanisms to limit query depth and breadth, such as depth limiting or pagination, are also crucial. Modern API gateways supporting GraphQL often provide features to enforce these limitations at a policy level.

Another critical aspect of securing GraphQL APIs involves managing the GraphQL schema. Limiting API discoverability and avoiding schema autogeneration are important to prevent exposing sensitive information through introspection.

Additionally, the ability to batch multiple queries allows callers to batch multiple queries or batch requests for multiple object instances in a single network call. This feature can improve efficiency but also introduces security risks.

Lastly, batching multiple object instances in a single network call can lead to a form of attack known as a 'batching attack,' which allows for faster and less detectable exploits. A form of brute force attack, with batching attacks, attackers can exploit the batching feature in GraphQL to guess passwords and gain unauthorized access to the API.

Incorporating these security measures into your GraphQL API development lays the foundation for a secure implementation. However, it’s important to note that these strategies form part of a broader security posture, which will be further explored in the API Security Best Practices section later in this guide.

GraphQL API Security Best Practices

With the foundational knowledge of GraphQL API security established, let’s pivot to some foundational best practices to keep your APIs secure. This section will thoroughly cover various tools and strategies to ensure your GraphQL APIs are as secure as possible.

Conduct Regular Security Audits and Penetration Testing

Firstly, conduct security audits and penetration testing on your GraphQL APIs. These methods are crucial for uncovering and addressing vulnerabilities early in development. Regular security audits should comprehensively examine your GraphQL API’s infrastructure, policies, and codebase to ensure they comply with security standards. Penetration testing, on the other hand, simulates cyberattacks to test the resilience of your GraphQL API against real-world threats.

Calculating Query Cost

Additionally, implementing query cost analysis is essential in preventing denial of service (DoS) attacks. By assigning costs to queries and checking their complexity, you can block expensive or resource-consuming queries. Tools like graphql-cost-analysis and other packages can help analyze and block such queries effectively.

Add in Authentication and Authorization

Authentication and authorization mechanisms are crucial for regulating access to your GraphQL API. Authentication verifies user identities, while authorization determines their access level. Implement secure authentication protocols like OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect. For authorization, use role-based access control (RBAC) or attribute-based access control (ABAC) to ensure users only interact with API resources appropriate to their roles. Multi-factor authentication (MFA) adds an additional layer of security, reducing the chance of unauthorized access.

Encrypt Data in Transit and at Rest

Encryption plays a critical role in GraphQL API security. Encrypting data in transit using TLS with strong cipher suites is essential. Tools like Let’s Encrypt can provide free TLS certificates to facilitate this process. For data at rest, use robust encryption algorithms like AES and securely manage the encryption keys with cloud providers or hardware security modules (HSMs) services.

Effective Error Handling, Logging, and Input Validation

Error handling at the code level helps ensure that API errors do not leak sensitive data. Develop strategies for uniform error responses that do not disclose details about the API’s internals. Logging is critical for recording API transactions, aiding post-incident analysis, and detecting abuse patterns. Ensure that logs do not include sensitive information. Tools like ELK Stack or Splunk can be used for log aggregation and analysis.

Use Throttling, Rate Limiting, and Query Depth Limiting

Throttling and rate limiting are essential for controlling the number of requests to your GraphQL API, preventing service overuse, and protecting against denial-of-service attacks. Implement these controls using API gateways or middleware. Set sensible defaults based on typical user behavior and adjust them in real-time in response to observed usage patterns or attacks. It’s also important to note that aliasing to send multiple queries in a single HTTP request can bypass rate limiting and create potentially harmful infinite-loop requests.

Ensure Proper API Versioning and Deprecation Strategies

As your GraphQL API evolves, maintain transparent versioning and deprecation strategies. Adopt Semantic Versioning (SemVer), communicate changes through a changelog, and provide a migration path for users when deprecating older versions. API management platforms can facilitate the control of different API versions and transitions.

Embrace a Zero-Trust Network Model:

Adopt a zero-trust network model, which assumes no user or system is trusted by default, even inside the network perimeter. Enforce strict user verification, apply the principle of least privilege, and use micro-segmentation to limit access within your network. Continuous monitoring and validation at every stage of an API call are crucial.

Automate Scanning and Testing for Vulnerabilities

Integrate automated vulnerability scanning and testing into your CI/CD pipeline. This proactive approach, including dynamic and static application security testing (DAST and SAST), is essential for maintaining your GraphQL API’s security posture. Regular testing, informed by new security threats and system updates, is key.

Secure the Underlying Infrastructure

Ensure the infrastructure hosting your GraphQL API is secure. Apply regular updates and patches to servers, enforce strict firewall rules, and utilize intrusion detection systems. In cloud environments, leverage native security features and adhere to best practices in access and account management.

Implementing these best practices will create a robust security framework for your GraphQL APIs. Remember that these strategies may need to be tailored based on the specific types of GraphQL APIs you have deployed, regulatory requirements, and other unique factors of your security framework.

Augmenting API Security With StackHawk

As mentioned in our breakdown of best practices, StackHawk is an essential tool in reinforcing some of the API security concepts outlined above. By bringing a suite of automated testing capabilities that align closely with best practices for API security, StackHawk is a dynamic application security testing (DAST) tool built for developers. The platform is easy to use, automated, and provides a best-in-class experience for developers to create secure APIs. Let’s look further at some of the benefits StackHawk brings to API developers and their teams. 

Automated Security Risk Tests

StackHawk provides an automated suite to test against common and more advanced API security risks. The platform helps to identify and resolve issues like SQL Injection and Remote OS Command Injection before deployment. This capability supports the abovementioned best practices involving regular security audits and penetration testing.

Integration with CI/CD Pipelines

The platform also integrates easily with CI/CD pipelines and can be set up to ensure every pull request is checked for new vulnerabilities. This ties in nicely with the best practice of testing in development to prevent shipping vulnerabilities to production.

Modern Tooling for Various API Types

Unlike some other tools, StackHawk can support various API types when it comes to testing. On top of supporting GraphQL APIs, the tool also caters to modern application architectures by supporting REST, SOAP, and gRPC APIs. This helps to ensure that your entire API portfolio has blanket coverage instead of excluding API types that other tools may not support.

Efficient Vulnerability Management

The most powerful outcome for developers that use StackHawk is fast detection and detailed documentation for remediation. StackHawk streamlines the process of fixing vulnerabilities and makes developers' lives easy and the APIs they create more secure. By making the tool developer-friendly, vulnerability management becomes easy to implement and easy for developers to utilize.

By incorporating StackHawk into your API development lifecycle, you can make significant progress towards maintaining a high-security standard and adherence to the best practices outlined in this guide.


As we conclude our comprehensive exploration of GraphQL API security, it’s evident that protecting these APIs is crucial and intricate. Through this guide, we’ve journeyed through the complexities of API security, focusing on the unique aspects of securing GraphQL APIs and touching on foundational principles like those in the OWASP Top 10. We've examined strategic best practices that are essential in strengthening your digital defenses, particularly in the context of GraphQL API security.

In the ongoing pursuit of security excellence, tools like StackHawk prove invaluable. StackHawk is particularly adept at enhancing GraphQL API security strategies. Its automated security testing is specifically designed for modern API architectures, including GraphQL, and its integration into CI/CD pipelines aids in early vulnerability detection. This ensures that your security measures evolve alongside your GraphQL APIs.

As you apply the knowledge gained from this guide to enhance your GraphQL API security, consider exploring what StackHawk has to offer. Starting with a free account on StackHawk can be your first step towards ensuring your GraphQL APIs are as secure as possible.

Automated API security testing in CICD

Nicole Jones  |  June 6, 2024

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